MENSAGEM DE S.A.R. O SENHOR DOM DUARTE DE BRAGANÇA AOS PORTUGUESES

A CAUSA REAL NO DISTRITO DE AVEIRO

A CAUSA REAL NO DISTRITO DE AVEIRO
Autor: Nuno A. G. Bandeira

Tradutor

segunda-feira, 18 de dezembro de 2017

UMA CARTA COM QUASE SEIS SÉCULOS QUE DÁ QUE PENSAR

Foto de José Albuquerque.

Carta enviada de Bruges, pelo Infante D. Pedro ao irmão D. Duarte, em 1426, resumo feito por Robert Ricard e constante do seu estudo «L’Infant D. Pedro de Portugal et “O Livro da Virtuosa Bemfeitoria”», in Bulletin des Études Portugaises, do Institut Français au Portugal, Nova série, tomo XVII, 1953, pp. 10-11).
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«O governo do Estado deve basear-se nas quatro virtudes cardeais e, sob esse ponto de vista, a situação de Portugal não é satisfatória. A força reside em parte na população; é pois preciso evitar o despovoamento, diminuindo os tributos que pesam sobre o povo.

Impõem-se medidas que travem a diminuição do número de cavalos e de armas.
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É preciso assegurar um salário fixo e decente aos coudéis, a fim de se evitarem os abusos que eles cometem para assegurar a sua subsistência.

É necessário igualmente diminuir o número de dias de trabalho gratuito que o povo tem de assegurar, e agir de tal forma que o reino se abasteça suficientemente de víveres e de armas; uma viagem de inspecção, atenta a estes aspectos, deveria na realidade fazer-se de dois em dois anos.
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A justiça só parece reinar em Portugal no coração do Rei [D. João I] e de D. Duarte; e dá ideia que de lá não sai, porque se assim não fosse aqueles que têm por encargo administrá-la comportar-se-iam mais honestamente.

A justiça deve dar a cada qual aquilo que lhe é devido, e dar-lho sem delonga..

É principalmente deste último ponto de vista que as coisas deixam a desejar: o grande mal está na lentidão da justiça.

Quanto à temperança, devemos confiar sobretudo na acção do clero, mas ele [o Infante D. Pedro] tem a impressão de que a situação em Portugal é melhor do que a dos países estrangeiros que visitou.
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Enfim, um dos erros que lesam a prudência é o número exagerado das pessoas que fazem parte da casa do Rei e da dos príncipes.
De onde decorrem as despesas exageradas que recaem sobre o povo, sob a forma de impostos e de requisições de animais.
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Acresce que toda a gente ambiciona viver na Corte, sem outra forma de ofício.»

(arquivo Rainer Daehnhardt)
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D. Pedro, filho de D. João I e irmão do Rei D. Duarte, foi um dos mais brilhantes governantes de Portugal - como regente na menoridade do seu sobrinho D. Afonso V. O ideal do Político brilhante e extraordinário. A falta que nos fazem os testemunhos de homens como este).


OS PORTUGUESES VISTOS DO JAPÃO

Foto de Nova Portugalidade.

"Estes homens, bárbaros do Sudeste, são comerciantes. Compreendem até certo ponto a distinção entre superior e inferior, mas não sei se existe entre eles um sistema próprio de etiqueta. Bebem em copo sem o oferecerem aos outros; comem com os dedos, e não com pauzinhos como nós. Mostram os seus sentimentos sem nenhuma inibição. São gente que passa a vida errando de aqui para além, sem morada certa, e trocam as coisas que possuem pelas que não têm, mas no fundo são gente que não faz mal".

Teppo-ki, Crónica da Espingarda, 1543


CUIDADO COM AS FRAUDES CHINESAS

Foto de Nova Portugalidade.

Não possuo bagagem erudita em questões de história naval que me permita esgrimir argumentos sobre uma oportuna polémica a respeito da tese da prioridade chinesa no movimento dos descobrimentos pré-colombinos e pré-gâmicos. Contudo, um interesse mínimo pela questão levou-me a adquirir alguma bibliografia ultimamente surgida, a qual permite desmontar o atrevimento deGavin Menzies, o tal autor pago regiamente por Pequim para produzir obras sobre o carácter pioneiro dos "descobrimenos chineses". Menzies é ex-oficial da armada britânica, um diletante não reconhecido por qualquer entidade, pelo que todo o trabalho que tem elaborado repercute improviso, ausência de curriculum e desconhecimento de bibliografia básica.

Escavando nos arquivos imperiais de Pequim, Menzies foi confrontado com um mapa mundo supostamente cartografado no primeiro quartel do século XV pelo eunumo sino-muçulmano Zheng He, no decurso das supostas viagens transoceânicas que o teriam levado à costa ocidental da América, à África Oriental e à Austrália. De facto, a peça cartográfica é uma cópia executada em 1763 por Mo Yi Tong a partir da matriz do século XV, mas acrescentada por todas as contribuições portuguesas, castelhanas e britânicas. A tese, copiosamente regada de imprecisões cronológicas e abusos interpretativos, apenas me sugere uma explicação: a China tem ambições mundiais e quer, pagando a improvisados historiadores, secundarizar a prioridade europeia no processo de mundialização. Lembra-me as teorias sem pés nem cabeça do "arianismo" do século XIX - vigorosamente repelida pela arqueologia - , do Homem de Piltdown, do russismo durante a vigência da URSS (atribuía-se a um tal Popov o descobrimento de tudo) ou, mais recentemente, da genética islâmica por detrás de tudo e mais alguma coisa.

MCB




GRANDE REPORTAGEM DO DAILYMAIL SOBRE OS FUNERAIS DO REI MIGUEL DA ROMÉNIA

Honor guard soldiers carry the coffin of the late Romanian King Michael during the funeral ceremony


Honoured guests: Prince Charles joins royal elite at funeral for Romania's Michael I as tens of thousands mourn the monarch who shunned the Nazis only to be forced to abdicate by Communists


  • Michael, who ruled Romania twice before being forced to abdicate by the Communists in 1947, died aged 96 
  • Prince Charles, Sweden's Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia were among the European royals at the service
  • Romanians gathered silently, many in tears, in Revolution Square where Michael's coffin was laid on a dais 

Prince Charles and fellow European royals joined tens of thousands of Romanians to pay their respects to the country's late King Michael I as a state funeral got underway on Saturday.
Michael, who ruled Romania twice before being forced to abdicate by the communists in 1947, died aged 96 in Switzerland this month.
Sweden's King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia, and Spain's former King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofia, were among those at a pre-funeral service at the Royal Palace in Bucharest where Michael's body had been laying in state for the past two days. The Swedish king saluted as Michael's coffin was placed on a dais.  
Among non-European royals attending the funeral was Princess Muna al-Hussein, mother of King Abdullah II of Jordan.
Soldiers carry the coffin of late Romanian King Michael during a funeral ceremony in Bucharest
Soldiers carry the coffin of late Romanian King Michael during a funeral ceremony in Bucharest
Other royals including Henri, the Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Princess Astrid and Prince Lorenz of Belgium were joined by Romanian President Klaus Iohannis for a sung funeral service, led by the head of the Romanian Orthodox Church, Patriarch Daniel.
Bishops wafted incense in the small cathedral where Michael was crowned for the second time on Sept. 6, 1940. Michael, who was a great-great grandson of Queen Victoria, first became king aged five after his father Carol II eloped with his mistress and abdicated.
Earlier, the crowd cheered and shouted 'King Michael!' as the coffin, led by Orthodox priests and a guard of honor, was transported by an army jeep toward the cathedral. 
European royals join Romanians in paying respects to King Michael I
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Last goodbye: Princess Margaret of Hohenzollern, daughter of former Romanian King Michael, touches his coffin, at the former royal palace 
Last goodbye: Princess Margaret of Hohenzollern, daughter of former Romanian King Michael, touches his coffin, at the former royal palace 
From left, Belgium's Prince Lorenz, Princess Astrid, Princess Muna al-Hussein of Jordan, Greece's Queen Anne Marie, Britain's Prince Charles, former Spanish royals, Queen Sofia, King Juan Carlos I, Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg, Sweden's Queen Silvia and King Carl XVI Gustaf, stand in the front row as they attend the funeral ceremony
From left, Belgium's Prince Lorenz, Princess Astrid, Princess Muna al-Hussein of Jordan, Greece's Queen Anne Marie, Britain's Prince Charles, former Spanish royals, Queen Sofia, King Juan Carlos I, Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg, Sweden's Queen Silvia and King Carl XVI Gustaf, stand in the front row as they attend the funeral ceremony
Prince Charles, left, former Spanish royals, Queen Sofia, center, and King Juan Carlos I attend the funeral ceremony
Prince Charles, left, former Spanish royals, Queen Sofia, center, and King Juan Carlos I attend the funeral ceremony
Romania's former King Michael (C), accompanied by his daughter Princess Margareta and his nephew Prince Nicolae, waves during a ceremony celebrating both his 92nd birthday in 2013
Romania's former King Michael (C), accompanied by his daughter Princess Margareta and his nephew Prince Nicolae, waves during a ceremony celebrating both his 92nd birthday in 2013

The crown on the coffin

The crown adorning the king's coffin is a replica of the original steel model, which is in Bucharest's National History Museum.
The crown was originally made in 1877 for Carol I, Romania's first foreign king, from one of the cannons of Turkish soldiers defeated by Romanian troops in the Bulgarian city of Plevna during the war of independence.
Carol I wanted it made from steel rather than gold to symbolize the courage of Romanians soldiers.
Michael's five daughters and his estranged grandson Nicholas Medforth-Mills, who was stripped of his title for allegedly fathering a child out of wedlock, walked behind the coffin.
Mourner Georgeta Anastasiu, 60, said the late king had been 'demonized by the communists, but in the end we found out the truth about him.' 
She called the king 'the last moral example for Romanians.'
His body will then be taken by a royal train to the central Romanian city of Curtea de Arges where he will be buried next to his wife, Anne de Bourbon-Parme, who died last year. 
For many, it's a sad reminder of the train the communists made Michael and his mother Queen Helen take from Bucharest to Switzerland after he was forced to abdicate in December 1947 and began his exile 70 years ago.  
It's not clear exactly how much Michael and the royal house owns, but they do have castles and real estate.
While Romania has been a republic for 70 years, the monarchy still holds some allure for Romanians, and Michael was seen as a symbol of morality and modesty. 
Prince of Wales attends King Michael I's funeral in Bucharest
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Honor guard soldiers carry the coffin of the late Romanian King Michael during the funeral ceremony outside the former royal palace
Honor guard soldiers carry the coffin of the late Romanian King Michael during the funeral ceremony outside the former royal palace
Pictured (L-R): Greece's Queen Anne-Marie, Prince Charles, former Spanish Queen Sofia and former Spanish King Juan Carlos and Princess Margaret of Hohenzollern, daughter of former Romanian King Michael 
Pictured (L-R): Greece's Queen Anne-Marie, Prince Charles, former Spanish Queen Sofia and former Spanish King Juan Carlos and Princess Margaret of Hohenzollern, daughter of former Romanian King Michael 
Prince Charles, Former Spanish Queen Sofia and former Spanish King Juan Carlos attend a funeral ceremony for late Romanian King Michael in Bucharest
Prince Charles, Former Spanish Queen Sofia and former Spanish King Juan Carlos attend a funeral ceremony for late Romanian King Michael in Bucharest
Honor guard soldiers carry the coffin of the late Romanian King Michael during the funeral ceremony outside the former royal palace in Bucharest
Honor guard soldiers carry the coffin of the late Romanian King Michael during the funeral ceremony outside the former royal palace in Bucharest
Greece's Queen Anne-Marie and Britain's Prince Charles engage in conversation as they attend the funeral ceremony
Greece's Queen Anne-Marie and Britain's Prince Charles engage in conversation as they attend the funeral ceremony
Belgium's Princess Astrid and her husband, Prince Lorenz, Greece's Queen Anne Marie, Britain's Prince Charles, Former Spanish Queen Sofia and former Spanish King Juan Carlos, King Carl Gustaf of Sweden (unseen) and his wife, Sweden's Queen Silvia and Henri, Duke of Luxembourg, (unseen), Crown Princess Margareta of Romania and her husband, Radu Duda at the funeral ceremony
Belgium's Princess Astrid and her husband, Prince Lorenz, Greece's Queen Anne Marie, Britain's Prince Charles, Former Spanish Queen Sofia and former Spanish King Juan Carlos, King Carl Gustaf of Sweden (unseen) and his wife, Sweden's Queen Silvia and Henri, Duke of Luxembourg, (unseen), Crown Princess Margareta of Romania and her husband, Radu Duda at the funeral ceremony
Britain's Prince Charles arrives for the start of the funeral ceremony
Britain's Prince Charles arrives for the start of the funeral ceremony
Belgium's Princess Astrid and her husband, Prince Lorenz hold hands at the funeral ceremony in Bucharest
Belgium's Princess Astrid and her husband, Prince Lorenz hold hands at the funeral ceremony in Bucharest
Spain's King Juan Carlos I (center L) and his wife Queen Sofia (center R) arrive to pay respect at the coffin of late King
Spain's King Juan Carlos I (center L) and his wife Queen Sofia (center R) arrive to pay respect at the coffin of late King
Britain's Prince Charles (C) looks on as orthodox priests lead the funeral ceremony of the late King Michael I of Romania, held in front of former Royal Palace
Britain's Prince Charles (C) looks on as orthodox priests lead the funeral ceremony of the late King Michael I of Romania, held in front of former Royal Palace
Former Queen of Spain Sophia (L) and King Henry of Luxembourg arrive to pay their respects to the late King
Former Queen of Spain Sophia (L) and King Henry of Luxembourg arrive to pay their respects to the late King
The royal crown is placed on the coffin of late Romanian King Michael during the funeral ceremony outside the former royal palace in Bucharest
The royal crown is placed on the coffin of late Romanian King Michael during the funeral ceremony outside the former royal palace in Bucharest
King Juan Carlos I of Spain (R) and Queen Sofia of Spain (L) look on the cortege during the funeral ceremony of the late King Michael I of Romania
King Juan Carlos I of Spain (R) and Queen Sofia of Spain (L) look on the cortege during the funeral ceremony of the late King Michael I of Romania
Queen Silvia of Sweden (L) and King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden (R) during the funeral ceremony
Queen Silvia of Sweden (L) and King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden (R) during the funeral ceremony
Former Spanish royals, King Juan Carlos I and Queen Sofia, arrive to pay their respects to the late Romanian King Michael
Former Spanish royals, King Juan Carlos I and Queen Sofia, arrive to pay their respects to the late Romanian King Michael
King Juan Carlos I (L) of Spain chats with Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg (R) during the funeral ceremony
King Juan Carlos I (L) of Spain chats with Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg (R) during the funeral ceremony
Honor guard soldiers carry the coffin of the late Romanian King Michael during the funeral ceremony
Honor guard soldiers carry the coffin of the late Romanian King Michael during the funeral ceremony
Honor guard soldiers carry the coffin of the late Romanian King Michael during the funeral ceremony
Honor guard soldiers carry the coffin of the late Romanian King Michael during the funeral ceremony
Honor guard soldiers perform a changing of the guard by the coffin of late Romanian King Michael
Honor guard soldiers perform a changing of the guard by the coffin of late Romanian King Michael
People wait outside the former royal palace to attend Romanian King Michael's funeral ceremony in Bucharest
People wait outside the former royal palace to attend Romanian King Michael's funeral ceremony in Bucharest
A steward checks on a man who kneeled by the coffin of late Romanian King Michael, at the former royal palace
A steward checks on a man who kneeled by the coffin of late Romanian King Michael, at the former royal palace
Honor guard soldiers carry the coffin of the late Romanian King Michael during the funeral ceremony
Honor guard soldiers carry the coffin of the late Romanian King Michael during the funeral ceremony
A Romanian boy wearing the royal flag over his shoulders prior to the start of the funeral ceremony of late King Michael I of Romania
A Romanian boy wearing the royal flag over his shoulders prior to the start of the funeral ceremony of late King Michael I of Romania
 
King Michael I of Romania, at Heathrow Airport in 1961
King Michael I of Romania, at Heathrow Airport in 1961
Romania's revered king Michael, a long and tragic life  
Romania's former king Michael incarnated the tragic fate and political turmoil suffered by his country in the 20th century.
One of the last surviving World War II leaders, the beloved monarch who suffered from leukaemia announced last March he was seriously ill, withdrawing from public life and handing his duties to his eldest daughter Margareta, 68.
Born on October 25, 1921 in Sinaia, about 120 kilometres (75 miles) north of Bucharest, Michael was a descendant of the German Hohenzollern dynasty.
He ruled twice, from 1927 to 1930 and then from 1940 to 1947, before the communist government ended the monarchy in the Balkan country.
He was just 19 when he began his second reign as the war was raging, and Romania, then led by marshal Ion Antonescu, had become an ally of Germany's Adolf Hitler.
Despite his inexperience, the young king managed to stage a coup d'etat in 1944, leading to Antonescu's arrest and Bucharest's joining the allied forces.
But the end of World War II unleashed the rise of communism and Romania became a satellite of the Soviet Union.
The slim, blue-eyed ruler with an unmistakable aristocratic bearing was forced to abdicate and go into exile on December 30, 1947.
Ex-King Michael I of Romania, with wife Anne and daughters, Princess Margarita and Princess Elena, at Aberdeen Station
Ex-King Michael I of Romania, with wife Anne and daughters, Princess Margarita and Princess Elena, at Aberdeen Station
A few months later, he was also stripped of his citizenship. 
Michael opted to settle in Switzerland, where he earned a modest living as an aircraft mechanic and farmer.
He had five daughters with his wife Anne of Bourbon-Parma.
Democracy returned to Romania in 1989 when Nicolae Ceausescu's dictatorship collapsed.
Dreaming of 'serving' his people again, the former king tried to settle back in his home country on several occasions, but Romanian authorities blocked his attempts.
Fate turned in his favour in 1996 with the ousting of president Ion Iliescu, once a high-ranking communist official and a key opponent of the former monarch.
The new government restored Michael's citizenship the following year and he began to revisit the country.
He also took on some quasi-diplomatic roles for Romania, campaigning for its admission to NATO and the European Union.
After moving back to Bucharest in 2002, he kept a low profile, making only brief appearances in public for major events.
For his 90th birthday in 2011, Michael gave his first parliamentary speech since being deposed.
In the historic address, he spoke of his 'long life, full of happy and unhappy events' and called on Romania to shed 'bad habits of the past'.
He spent his remaining years residing in both Romania and Switzerland.
In 2016, he was diagnosed as suffering from skin cancer and a chronic form of leukaemia. It was also the year that his wife died.


Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-5185873/Prince-Charles-pays-respects-Romanias-late-king.html#ixzz51azt9000
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